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神舟号宇宙飞船(载人飞船)

       载人飞船一般由乘员返回座舱、轨道舱、服务舱、对接舱和应急救生装置等部分组成,登月飞船还具有登月舱。返回座舱是载人飞船的核心舱段,它是飞船上升和返回过程中航天员乘坐的舱段,也是整个飞船的控制中心, 返回座舱不仅和其他舱段一样要承受起飞、上升和轨道运行阶段的各种应力和环境条件,而且还要经受再入大气层和返回地面阶段的减速过载和气动加热。

        轨道舱是航天员在轨道上的工作场所,里面装有各种实验仪器和设备。服务舱通常安装推进系统、电源和气源等设备,对飞船起服务保障作用。对接舱是用来与航天站或其他航天器对接的舱段。对接舱除对接锁紧机构外,还有气闸舱,航天员可由此出舱进入空间。应急救生装置保障在应急情况下,使航天员安全返回地面,或转移到其他航天器上。它也是载人飞船的重要组成部分。为了保证人员能够进入太空和安全返回地面,载人飞船有以下主要分系统;①结构系统;②姿态控制系统;③轨道控制系统;④无线电测控系统;⑤电源系统;⑥返回着陆系统;⑦生命保障系统;⑧仪表照明系统;⑨应急救生系统。    


Manned Spaceship

        Manned spaceship usually consists of reentry capsule, orbital module, service module, ducking module and emergency lifesaving system. The spaceship used for moon landing also has a lunar module. Reentry capsule is not only the major part of a manned spaceship, which is used to accommodate astronauts during ascending and reentry into space, but also the control center of the whole spaceship. It must endure various stress and environmental conditions in the process of launching, ascending in the atmosphere and operating on the orbit like other modules. Also, it must endure speed-down overloads and aerodynamic thermal loads during reentry into atmosphere and land on the earth. Orbital module is the working place of astronauts on orbit,where there are diversified experimental instruments and equipment. Service module usually installs propulsion system, power supply and gas source  and provides service support for the spaceship. Docking module is used for docking with space station or other spacecrafts. Besides the docking and locking mechanism, it also has an air break cabin through which the astronaut enters space.

       Emergency lifesaving systems can ensure the astronauts to land safely in an emergency, or transfer to the other spacecraft. It is also the major part of a manned spaceship. To ensure people can access to space and return to the earth safely, the manned spaceship includes the following major sub-systems: 1.structure system   ;2.attitude control system;3.orbit control system;4.wireless telemetry and control system;5.power supply system;6.reentry and landing system;7.life support system;8.instrument illumination system;9.emergency lifesaving system.    


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